A short account of the
with notes on its boundaries,
collected by B. & H. L. P.,
and intended to commemorate the perambulation of the Parish
On Holy Thursday
21st May, 1868.
"Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour's landmark." — Deut. xxvii.
Printed for the authors
by John Fenton, Loughborough Place, Brixton, S.W.
The parish of Bermondsey is in the Hundred of Brixton, in the County of Surrey. The manor of Bermondsey is mentioned in the Doomsday Book as being then held by the King, Earl Harold having held it previous to the conquest. William Rufus gave this manor (1094) to the monastery founded at this place, and it remained in the possession of the abbey until 1538, when it was surrendered to King Henry the Eighth, who granted it (1541) to Sir Robert Southwell. He the same year sold it to Sir Thomas Pope, who in 1556 aliened the manor to Robert Trapps, Esq., and in 1717 it was sold to Peter Hambly, Esq., whose family still hold the manor.
The abbey was founded by Ailwin Child, citizen of London, 1082. It received many munificent gifts from royal and noble donors. In 1371 it was seized as an alien priory, but was afterwards made denizen. At the suppression of monasteries the abbey was granted to Sir Thomas Pope, who pulled down the abbey church and erected a mansion with the materials. This afterwards became the residence of Thos. Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex, who in 1583 died here. This mansion stood midway on the east side of the present Bermondsey Square. In the parish registers among the burials, occur the following: "19 March, 1594, John Pallure, ye Earle of Sussex, Porter. 19 June, 1596, Wm. Butterfielde, ye Earle of Sussex, footman." The abbey occupied the ground between Long Walk and Grange Walk. An old wall still remaining at the back of the houses, on the west side of Bermondsey Square, marks the boundary of the abbey on that side. The east gate in Grange Walk was taken down in 1760; the hooks on which the gates hung may still be seen. The north or great gate house, which stood at the opening of the square from Abbey Street, was pulled down about 1807. The west gate stood across the entrance of Abbey Street from Bermondsey Street; the grange was the farm house of the abbey. Among the royal residents at this abbey may be mentioned Katherine, Queen of Henry the Fifth, who died here in 1437; and Elizabeth Woodville, Queen of Edward the Fourth, who died here in 1492.
In 1601 the great Queen Elizabeth passed through Bermondsey Street on one of her many Maying excursions to Greenwich. The bell-ringers at the old church on this occasion rang a merry peal for the munificent sum of sixpence.
The parish church is in the diocese of Winchester and deanery of Southwark. It was founded by the monks of the abbey at an early period for the use of their tenants. The present church, which took the place of a more ancient edifice, was erected in 1680; its length is 76 feet, breadth 61 feet, height 30 feet : it has a fine organ by Walker, opened in 1853. The living is a rectory in the gift of the Lord of the Manor. The parish possesses a free school, founded by Josiah Bacon in 1732, and charity schools, founded in 1714, besides many other like institutions.
The changes in this parish have been vast. The Upper Grange Road, Blue Anchor Road, Spa Road, and Jamaica Level were, but twenty years ago, mere fields; every acre of market ground is fast vanishing. The main street of Bermondsey has greatly altered; fires on the one hand, and new buildings on the other, have tended towards these changes. The old Fox and Goose public house (that noted house of call for Scotch bakers), has given place to a modern tavern, the quaint old houses adjoining have disappeared, and a large tin factory, well worth a visit, has taken their place. In 1828 the old rectory of red brick was pulled down and the new one erected. The church, which in 1800 possessed a square tower 87 feet high and a peal of bells, was dismantled in 1811, and a small wooden cupola erected in its stead. This was removed in 1830, and the present tower of 80 feet erected. The school-house in front of the church, with the piazzas, were removed in 1829. The churchyard was enlarged in 1783, enclosed in 1810, and finally closed for interments by order of Council 1854, that of St. James's remaining open until the following year. The Church of St. James, situate near the Spa Road, is an elegant structure, erected in 1829 : we have besides St. Paul's Church, built in 1848, and Christ Church, built in 1849.
The Leather Market is situate in New Weston Street, and was erected in 1833, at a cost of £50,000.
The parish contains 514 acres of land. The increase of houses in this parish has been very rapid; in 1708 these consisted only of 1500, a mere village; in 1732 we find them numbering 1900, and Maitland tells us in 1739 that there were 2111 houses. These, in 1792, when the Rev. Danl. Lysons wrote, had increased to 3100. In the census of 1801 3203 houses are numerated, with a population of 17,169 inhabitants. The census of 1861 gives us 8455 houses, and a population of 58,212 inhabitants. The registers of the parish, which date from 1548, show the largest number of deaths by the plague to have been in 1625, when the number of deaths recorded was 1117, at least 1000 more than the average of that period.
The following notes, serving to illustrate the subject of the Perambulation of Parishes on Ascension-day, have been taken from various authors:-
"It was the general custom formerly," says Bourne, "and is still observed in some parishes, to go round the bounds and limits of the parish, on one of the three days before Holy Thursday, when the minister, accompanied by his churchwardens and parishioners, were wont to deprecate the vengeance of God, beg a blessing on the fruits of the earth, and preserve the rights and properties of the parish." To this Withers alludes in his "Emblems," 1635, p.161:
That every man might keep his own possessions,
Our fathers us'd, in reverent processions,
With zealous prayers and with praiseful cheere,
To Walke their parish limits once a yeare;
And well knowne markes (which sacreligious hands
Now cut or breake) so bord'red out their lands
That ev'ry one distinctly knew his owne,
And many brawls now rife were then unknown.
These gang days (Saxon, gang dagas — that is, days of perambulation) brought to the recollection of Englishmen the settlement of the Christian faith in the island. Spelman derives the custom of processioning from the times of the heathen, and that it is an imitation of the feast called Verminalia, which was dedicated to the god Verminius, whom they considered as the guardian of fields and landmarks, and the keeper of friendship and peace among men. A writer in the "Gentlemen's Magazine," of 1790, speaks of the perambulations at Ripon, and thinks the custom originated in the Roman offerings of the primitioe, then being rendered conformable to their worship, was adopted by the first Christians, and handed down to modern times. The boundaries of the township and parish of Wolverhampton are in many points marked out by what are called Gospel Trees, from the custom of having the Gospel read under or near them by the clergyman attending the parochial perambulations. The following, from "Herrick's Hesperides," page 18, refers to this:
------------- Dearest, bury me
Under that Holy Oke, or Gospel Tree,
Where (though thou se'st not) thou may'st think upon Me when thou yerely go'st procession.
In the injunctions also made in the reign of Queen Elizabeth (that protestant Queen) it is ordered that the curate at certain and convenient places shall admonish the people to give thanks for the increase and abundance of fruits, saying the 103rd Psalm, &c., at which time the minister shall inculcate these or such sentences, "Cursed be he which translateth the bounds and doles of his neighbours." In Herbets "Country Parson," 1652, p. 157, we are told, "the country parson is a lover of old customs, if they be good and harmless, particularly he loves processions, and maintains it because there are contained therein four advantages. 1. A blessing of God for the fruits of the field. 2. Justice in the preservation of bounds. 3. Charity in loving, walking, and neighbourly accompanying one another, with reconciling of differences at that time, if there be any, and mercie in relieving the poor, which at that time ought to be done."
The Rev. W. Barnes, the Dorset poet, gives an amusing account of the modes taken to impress the boundaries on the memories of the youths of that county.
Mr. Pepys, in his diary, says—" 23rd May, 1661. This day was kept a holyday through the towne, and it pleased me to see the little boys walk up and down in procession, with their broom staffs in their hands, as I had myself long ago done." He seems to have joined his fellow parishioners at dinner on another occasion, for he says— "16th May, 1667. This being Holy Thursday, when the boys go our procession round the parish, we were to go to the Three Tuns Tavern to dine with the rest of the parish, where all the parish almost was."
In the parish of Bermondsey, which was essentially a Roman Catholic parish (the very parish church having a conventual foundation), no account of any perambulation occurs till the year 1601, when it is recorded among the churchwardens' accounts: "Item, expenses perambulation, 3s. 2d." In the following year we have, "At the second perambulation 5s. 10d.;" then follows "1603 Payd for perambulation," 11s. 62d.; 1604: Expenses perambulation, 9s. 9d.; 1606, 8s. 6d.; 1607, 12s. 10d.; 1608, 14s. 3d.; 1609 "Item, paid on Ascension Day for bread, beare, and cheese, at a perambulation," the some of 14s.; 1611: Item, paid for our dinner on our perambulation day, the 2nd May, and other charges at Mr. Webbs', divers of the parishioners being there, and for bread and drink in the vestry for the children, the same day" the some of £2 18s.; 1612: Item' paid for provision for the perambulation, day, 22nd May, 1612, £3 19s. 7d. ; 1614: Charges perambulation, £1 6s. 7d.; 1616 : Item, paid for beare, bread and cheese, cake and wine, at the perambulation, the — May, being Ascension Day, 1616, £1 6s.; 1618, £1 9s. 6d.; 1619, £1 13s. 2d.; 1621, £1 6s. 6d.; 1622, 10s. A lapse in the accounts brings us to 1690: Expenses perambulation, £6. in 1692-3 we have as follows: To disbursements and expenses in going procession on Ascension Day—for two legs of veal 15s.; five quarters of lamb, 17s.; to the ringers 2s. 6d.; Thomas Jewing, bellman, 1s.; William Streat, for landmarks, 1s. ; for two hundred and a pound of cheese, at £1 5s. per hundred, £2 10s. 1696 : Payd for a barrel of beer for processioning, £1 3s.; payd for nosegaies and spinnage, salleting, and expenses in walking the bounds, 9s. 2d. 1698: Perambulation takes place again this year. The following is extracted from the vestry minutes : "29 March, 1687. Ordered by consent of the above parishioners, that whereas, according to custom, they intend upon the 5th May next, being Ascension Day, with the boys and youth of the said parish, to go a procession or perambulation to view the circuits or bounds of the said parish, £6 be allowed. 1709: The parishioners being aggrieved at an order passed at a former meeting — that there shall be no perambulation that year --- it was now determined that they might walk the bounds. The following is taken from a manuscript entitled "Form of the procession for the Parish of St. Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey, on Holy Thursday, being the 17 May, 1792." To meet at the Church at 8 o'clock, and to set off precisely at 9 o'clock, and then to proceed in the following order:
Two pioneers, bellman, constable, colours, steward (Mr. Butler), workhouse boys, master of the workhouse, steward (Mr. Rich), colours, Freeschool children, and usher, constable, colours, steward (Mr. Uppom), charity girls and mistress, charity boys and master, colours, steward (Mr. Pettitt), constable, parishioners children, constable, colours, (silk), steward (Mr. Carter), music, two beadles, two ministers, two wardens (Charles Vowell, and Thomas Godsall,) sidesmen, sidesmen elect, governors and directors, clerk, steward (Mr. Robinson), parishioners at large.
To proceed to Crucifix-lane and then take the bounds to Dockhead (a few of the procession to go by water down the dock and outside the chains, and land at West-lane;) the rest to proceed down Mill-street, along the wall to West-lane; thence to the post at Randall's front gates; thence to the Cross Galley Wall; thence to Mr. Roll's,(sic) across the fields to the New-road, cross the road, taking the fields to Long-lane, some of the children to go through the first house, Long-lane, and the rest of the procession through the halfpenny hatch, through Snow's Fields (ditch-casters to take the outer bounds), down Snow's Fields to Bermondsey-street (music there to play, and finish the procession), and thence to church to deliver up the staves. 13 May, 1805 : In the vestry minutes occurs the following, "Boundary of the parish at Galley Wall" (memorandum): A post with a boundary mark of the parish of Camberwell having been observed by the churchwardens to stand on the outside of the garden wall of John Rolls, Esq., on the Galley Wall within this parish, a meeting was held between the churchwardens of Bermondsey and Camberwell thereupon; when, after a survey taken thereof in the presence of the solicitor and surveyor for Mr. Hambly, the lord of the manor, it was found that several feet of ground, part of the Galley Wall within this parish, had been enclosed and taken within the garden of Mr. Rolls, whereupon it was agreed that three stones should be placed on such wall to denote the precise boundary between the two parishes, and which stones were accordingly placed therein at the joint expense of both parishes.
In 1819, we find scavengers, marksman, workhouse girls, parish clerk, vestry clerk, and sexton taking part in the procession, with the extra enlivement of a drum and fife band. The churchwardens and parishioners seemed to have dined at the Ship Tavern, Long-lane, after this perambulation.
An account of this perambulation, taken from an original paper, written by some one who seems to have taken some interest in these proceedings "Arrangements of the intended perambulation for Holy Thursday, to start from the church up the east side of Bermondsey-street, to the end of Crucifix-lane, there to fasten up a boundary mark on the right hand, then proceed down Artillery-street to the end of Dog-lane, then put up another mark, and to the other end and fix a mark by Arthur's baker's shop, then cross the way and proceed down Russell-street to the end of the dock (called St. Saviour's Dock), there fasten a mark on the buildings as near as possible to the centre of the dock on the east side, then proceed in a boat to the end next the river Thames, where some inhabitants, together with about six charity boys and the same number from the poor-house, having embarked in a boat, proceed off in a direct line beyond the mooring chains of vessels and crafts to the centre or middle of the said river, then proceed eastward till you arrive at the small passage at the end of West-lane, there land and fix up your boundary mark. By this time the procession on land will have arrived there, and must halt to await your arrival; proceed then altogether down West-lane and along the road opposite Millpond Bridge, and all the way on the right hand by the gardens till you arrive at the boundary post, erected by the end of the lane, near Curtis's Garden, against which it has been customary to bump a boy (sometimes the parson), but be careful the said post is properly marked. About this time it has been usual to take some refreshment, both adults and children; then proceed to the stile, going over to the Galley Wall; before crossing you must pause and dig a cross over which must be sung the 100th Psalm. The bellman repeats the following verses:
After our blessed Saviour had arose from Death's dark grave, and triumph'd o'er his foes
His heav'nly Father's angels hasten'd down, to waft him home to an Eternal Crown.
Behold him then through air and skies ascend, God's only Son, and man's almighty friend,
And now enthron'd on high He pleads the cause, of us poor sinners trampling on His laws.
Let us henceforward then, amend our ways, lead better lives, and Him for ever praise,
In solemn anthems raise our voice, and sing, loud Hallelujahs to our Lord and King.
We then proceed to the other end, and repeat the same, the audience in both places uncovered, and here be careful to examine the stone marks affixed in the wall, and the boundary post close to Mr. Wilson's house; then proceed on through Youl's garden where you will affix a regular mark, as the garden is in two parishes, viz., Bermondsey and St. George's, then proceed by the end of the twine ground, and go round the dwelling house close by the ditch, at the back of the 'World turned upside down'; then proceed across a garden, in the occupation of Mr. J. Holford, and by his dwelling house to a door which must be opened for you beforehand; at the bottom of Standige's Buildings, which buildings go up and cross the road, and go by Keil's houses, then cross a tanyard, formerly Nicholls', now in the occupation of Mr. Hugh Rabbits, then by Messrs. Harvey's yard and across by Messrs. Lloyd and Latimer's, fixing a mark in the ditch. Then proceed on, keeping ditch close on the left, through the old Tenter ground, formerly Whittel's, since Burford's, till you arrive at Addington's Cooperage, at the end of which (in the lane), affix a mark, then cross over to a chandler's shop, kept by a Mr. Ayres, which you must enter and see properly marked, and then proceed as the watercourse directs, to the back of the Angel victualling house, and there affix a mark; then cross the way to the Boundary Stone; at the door of the late Anthony Clarke, go up a few stairs of the house and affix your mark; then proceed round the back of Benus (Butcher), and on to Stimpson ('the miller of Mansfield'); after fixing the necessary and proper marks, send a man (well booted) to go on through the dirty sewers, and so on by Margaret's Rents to the end of your boundary, which terminates at the Wheelwright's beyond the Drum public-house, where you must affix a board on the post of his out-house, in conjunction with that affixed by St. Olave's; at every place where the boundaries are marked, the boys should beat with their wands about a dozen strokes."
The perambulation of the parish of Bermondsey has of late years lost many of those pleasant features which characterized it some years ago. We have now no pleasant country lanes, bordered with lilac trees, which at this season were in full bloom, no orchards white with blossoms; and William Curtis, the learned author of the Flora Londiensis, would have now a poor chance of growing those British flowers and plants which, whilst residing at the Grange-road, he managed to collect and describe. We have now to parade its dusty streets, but there are still some points of interest left in walking the bounds of this ancient parish, which I will now notice.
Starting from the old church, Bermondsey Street, we observe the Hand Inn and King's Arms opposite. The parish has a rent charge issuing out of this property, the gift of Hugh Full in 1578, who willed that thirteen-pence in bread be distributed to thirteen of the poorest inhabitants every Sunday for ever. A few houses further on stood the Alms Houses, left by Thomas Kendall in 1551 for the use of the poor, who willed that only those living in the fear of God, and no drunkard, vicious or blasphemous person should dwell therein. In 1768, these houses being in decay, were pulled down, and the house No. 127 built on their site. A little distance up the street, Nos. 134 and 135, is Lockwood's Estate, belonging to this parish; nearly opposite these is the Working Man's Institute, one of those excellent buildings established to improve the habits of the people : and passing Russell-street the Woolpack Tavern, formerly the Cock and Pie, brings to our mind the staple for which this parish has been so long noted. Pausing to look at some curious old buildings in the occupation of Messrs. East, now about the oldest in the street, and giving a glance at the Black Swan, one of the few old inns left, where in the last century parish dinners were had, and passing the Police Station, the house adjoining is William Gardiner's gift to the parish (1597), the rent of which is for the use of the poor. This Gardiner bequeathed one of the present communion cups to the church at a cost of £6 13s 4d. Reaching Crucifix-lane, this name may be identified by an old inn existing here some years ago, having for its sign St. Christopher, associating it with the bearer of the cross, — hence Crucifix-lane. We are now on the boundary of the parish. Proceeding down the centre of the street, the houses now Nos. 37 and 38, called "God's Providence," must be noticed. These are the gift of Robert Banyard in 1659 to the relief of the poor of the parish for ever. Passing through the railway arch to Artillery-street, down Church-street to Russell-street, which takes its name from the eccentric Richard Russell, a justice of the peace for the county, who died in 1784, leaving, perhaps, one of the most curious wills extant. After willing various large sums of money to different charities, he desired that £500 be spent on his funeral, exclusive of £50 each to six young women who were to be pallbearers, and £20 each to four other young women who were to strew flowers before the corpse. He was buried at St. John's, Horsleydown, a sermon being preached by the rector, Mr. Penneck, which Mr. Russell expressly desired might be a short one, and which the tumult prevented being heard. A writer of the day says, "Never was a church more indecently profaned; swearing, quarrelling, fighting, and picking of pockets appeared to be the principal object attended to. The mob wore their hats, and many of them called out to the minister to speak louder. The rector of Bermondsey had his pockets picked, and the rector of St. John's received a violent bruise on his leg." The workhouse is in this street, erected in 1791. The first mention of a building of this kind in the parish, is in 1710, when we find the following: "Ordered that a convenient room be taken for the poor to work in, and that they be employed oakum picking." In 1746 a workhouse is "ordered to be built in Russell Street for 250 people; Lawrence Price to be builder and John Lorrington surveyor." After passing by Fashion-street we next come to Dockhead, or St. Saviour's Dock. From this place the name of the parish is partly derived, Beormunds being a Saxon proper name, and Hythe an opening from a river. Part of the procession here take water. We now proceed along Mill-street. Near here is Jacob's Island, which Charles Dickens has so graphically described in his "Oliver Twist" as being the retreat of Mr. William Sykes, but which, thanks to the vestry, has undergone great sanitary changes within the last few years. Bermondsey Wall, it is needless to say is a river wall, for the purpose of keeping the river within bound. On Bermondsey Wall, near Mill Stairs, next Messrs. Owst and Peacock's premises, is a parish estate, bought with money left by Mr. Andrew Dandy, and which he willed should be laid out in the purchase of a house, the rent of which should be distributed to six or more poor men or women of the parish, to each 20s. per annum for their lives, and as one died another should be chosen.
As we proceed along the river side the following free landing ways should be noticed:
A five feet way at Jones' Wharf, Dockhead.
,, ,, at Scott's Wharf, Mill Street.
,, ,, at Mill Street, between Messrs. Peek and Co.,
,, ,, at Mill Stairs. [and Mr. Noehmer's.
,, ,, adjoining Messrs. Dudin's Granaries.
,, ,, opposite Salisbury Lane.
,, ,, East Lane Stairs.
A ten ,, adjoining Fore and Aft Dock, (disputed.)
A five ,, ,, Green Man Public House.
" " Fountain Stairs.
" " opposite Marigold Street.
" " Cherry Garden Stairs.
" " opposite West Lane.
Having proceeded as far as West Lane, and the water party having landed and joined the procession, we now pass down West Lane ; in this vicinity a good deal of property belonged to the Marquis of Salisbury, for we find in 1673 the Earl rated in the parish books. A curious anecdote may be here related with reference to one of the former lease holders of some of this land, his leases being about to expire and wishing a renewal on easy terms, he proceeded to Hertford, the seat of the Marquis, where meeting at the Inn with a person who seemed to know a great deal about the Salisbury family, he inquired of him whether he could give him a drawing of the arms of the Marquis, stating at the same time that he intended to present the Marquis with a boat, upon which he wished the arms of the family painted; in fact said our Bermondsey friend it is only a sprat to catch a herring; the gentleman told him be had an old seal with the arms engraved upon it, and that he had no doubt that be should see him again before be left Hertford, when be would lend him it; imagine our friend's surprise when the next day proceeding to the hall and expecting to find the Steward, with whom he had hitherto done business with, finding instead the stranger he had met at the Inn, and who announced himself as his landlord, the Marquis of Salisbury. At East Hall in this vicinity resided Thos. Ratcliffe, Esq., F.S.A., a celebrated Biblomaniac, who died here in 1776, he had imbibed his love of reading and collecting from the accidental possession of scraps and leaves of books, keeping a chandler's shop in the Borough, and as is the case with all retail traders, having great quantities of old books brought to him to be purchased at so much per pound, hence arose his passion for collecting black letter as well as Stilton cheese, after unwearied industry he amassed a sufficiency to retire and live for the remainder of his days on the luxury of old English literature; Mr. Ratcliffe was a very corpulent man, and generally wore a fine red coat with gold lace, buttons, and a fine silk embroidered waistcoat of scarlet, and a large well powdered wig, with his hat in one hand and his gold headed cane in the other, be used to march royally along every Sunday to the meeting house of Dr. Flaxman, in the lower road, Rotherhithe, not unfrequently followed by a parcel of children, wondering who the stately man could be. His house here was once on fire and he ran about the place like a madman, exclaiming, my Caxtons! my Caxtons! his housekeeper thinking he meant his wigs said, "Sir, I beg you will not be so uneasy about your wigs, they are all safe." He generally used to spend whole days in the booksellers' warehouses, and that he might not lose time would get them to procure him a steak or chop; at the sale of his books, which took place after his death, the celebrated Garrick was present. We now proceed along Millpond Row, by the Jamaica Tavern, which has taken the place of the Jamaica House and Tea-gardens of the last century; this place is noted by Mr. Pepy's in his diary by the following quaint remarks, "14 April, 1867(sic) (Lord's day) took out my wife and the two Mercers, and two of our maids, Barker and Jane, over the water to the Jamaica House, where I never was before, and there the girls did run for wagers, over the bowling-green, and there with much pleasure, spent little, and so home." We next pass on our right one of the oldest houses in the parish, being the Manor-house, described as belonging to the Earl of Moriton; on our left the Mill-stream has entirely disappeared, and after a short walk we reach the entrance of the Southwark-park, this is entirely in the parish of Rotherhithe; passing under the railway arch we turn down Manor-road, near here was the old Galley or Salley Wall, this no doubt was part of those fortifications round London which Defoe conjectured were formed to prevent the incursions of the Britons into Kent. The following is an extract from his tour through the British Empire— "These lines were drawn from hence (Kent-street) to the Grange near Bermondsey-street, where you see another fort so plain, and so undemolished, the grass, now (1740) growing over the works, and though on the Bastion itself, there is frequently corn sowed, that it is almost as visible as it was when it was first thrown down. By the direction of these lines it is very manifest that Southwark was once well fortified, for these lines seem to have been thrown up from the Thames at Lambeth to the Thames at Deptford," — thus we have the modern Fort place. We now come to the Rotherhithe New Road and follow the course of the Earl Sewer which bounds the parish on this side; not far from here stood the handsome villa of John Rolls, Esq. Hughson, in his walks through London, thus speaks of it— "Standing on an eminence next the road this house has a stately appearance, the apartments and offices are elegant and convenient, the staircase is of a peculiar construction, by Mr. Raffield, having every communication with the interior of the mansion, the grounds are finely laid out." To this house George IV. once paid a passing visit. Crossing the Upper Grange-road the boundary of the parish continues along the gardens at the back of the houses on the north side of the Old Kent-road, and so on across Swan-street along the line of boundary to Aldred-street, crossing Bermondsey New Road; at this point we proceed down Green-walk through the tanyard, where an attempt was made a short time since to make gas from tan, but which was not found profitable. This was formerly Keysley's tanyard, who, on the occasion of the Coronation of our present Queen, roasted an ox whole, passing out by the half-penny hatch and along by the back of Southwark chapel, by the end of South-street, crossing Long-lane and through the gardens at the backs of the houses in Crosby-row into Snow's-fields, continuing along by the backs of the houses on the north side of Snow's-fields till we at length arrive at Bermondsey-street again. In the course of our circuit we may have felt that the parish had not that rural aspect, and our walk was not so pleasant as in years gone by. We may perhaps have regretted the loss of our abbey, with its rich estates and noble domains; but on the other hand we have gained many advantages that we did not then possess. We have our Churches, Schools, Baths, Tanneries and Factories, which have within the last few years greatly increased, adding materially to our parochial wealth. In conclusion, we cannot do better than quote the words of our local poet and worthy master of Bacon's School, in favor of the ancient custom of perambulation:
"One living witness, sure and true,
Is better far than dead ones two."
[Editor: Printed privately for the authors, B[enjamin] & H[enry] L[averock] P[hillips].
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